Artificial intelligence technologies are increasingly being applied in a variety of medical disciplines. After reviewing 278 publications from 1985 to 2023, 99 articles were selected from the databases elibrary, PubMed, Medline, WoS, Nature, Springer, and Wiley J Database to present the main approaches and a modern picture of the application of artificial intelligence methods and technologies in pediatric surgery and intensive care. The article examines many facets of artificial intelligence systems for medical uses, namely, computer decision support systems or supporting the surgeon throughout the surgical intervention procedure. Computer analysis of 3D visualization and 3D anatomical modeling of images obtained from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging investigations can be used to plan operations. Because of the possibilities of sufficiently accurate 3D models and methods for organs and pathological processes, various methodologies and software tools for preoperative planning and intraoperative support of surgical intervention have been developed. Computer (technical) vision analyzes high-quality medical images and interprets them in multimodal three-dimensional images for computer diagnoses and operations under visual control, including augmented reality methods. Robotic surgery involves manipulators, including remotely controlled ones, and intellectualized complexes that independently perform specific actions of the “second assistant surgeon”. In intensive care, artificial intelligence technologies are being investigated to merge data from bedside monitors and other information about patients’ conditions to identify critical situations and control mechanical ventilation. Simultaneously, several obstacles impede the adoption of artificial intelligence in surgery. The nature and standardization of the initial data required for their integration, taking into consideration atypical cases, the possibility of bias in the sample used, and the transparency of the decision-making process in machine learning models are examples. The explanation of solutions presented in machine learning models and the transition to full-fledged validation of the systems being built define the prospects for developing and using artificial intelligence systems.
Download PDF or read online at the Russian Journal of Pediatric Surgery, Anesthesia and Intensive Care website (in Russian): https://rps-journal.ru/jour/article/view/1547/pdf_1
Kobrinskii B. A. Artificial intelligence systems in surgery: A review of opportunities, limitations, and prospects // Russian Journal of Pediatric Surgery, Anesthesia and Intensive Care. — 2023. — Vol. 13. — N. 3. — P. 385–404.